A Journey Through Time Exploring the Rich History of Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka is an island country situated in the Indian Sea, simply off the southeastern shore of India. Regardless of its unobtrusive size — somewhat bigger than the territory of West Virginia — Sri Lanka has a populace of around 20 million individuals, practically equivalent to the number of inhabitants in Texas. The island is wealthy in regular assets, and has a different economy in light of horticulture, mining, fishing, assembling, and the travel industry. On turning into a free country in 1948 Sri Lanka (previously called Ceylon) appeared to be set out toward a future as a steady and prosperous majority rule government. Since the 1970s, notwithstanding, the nation has been torn by rough battles between the two fundamental ethnic gatherings, Sinhalese and Tamils, that make up its populace. Sri Lanka experienced extreme harm and death toll from the wave of 2004; what impact that calamity will have on the country’s political future is not yet clear.


Molded like a tear, the island of Sri Lanka estimates around 255 miles (415 km.) from north to south, and around 135 miles (220 km.) from east to west, with an all out land area of around 25,300 square miles (65,600 square km.). It has in excess of 830 miles (1340 km.) of shore. The island is ringed by an expansive beach front plain, ascending to an inland landscape of tenderly moving slopes. A scope of mountains rules the south-focal inside, with the most elevated top, Mt. Piduruthalagala, arriving at in excess of 8200 feet (2524 meters) in level.

Situated somewhere in the range of 5 and 10 degrees scope north of the equator, Sri Lanka has a heat and humidity overwhelmed by two rainstorm seasons. The mid year storm endures from mid-May to October, when twists from the southwest carry downpour from the Indian Sea toward the southern and western pieces of the island. Throughout the colder time of year storm, from December through Spring, twists from the upper east bring precipitation from the Inlet of Bengal to northern and eastern districts. Storm downpours are consistent and weighty, with up to 100 crawls of downpour each month falling throughout the late spring rainstorm in the southwest. October-November and mid-Walk to mid-May are intermonsoon seasons, with less precipitation. The environment is hot and damp for a significant part of the year, however is cooler in the high countries.


The Antiquated Time frame Around quite a while back, transients from northern India, the precursors of the present Sinhalese individuals, showed up in Sri Lanka. The Sinhalese were among the earliest individuals outside northern India to take on the Buddhist religion, which they did around 300 B.C.E. The Buddhist realms of Sri Lanka were connected by language and culture to the exemplary conditions of northern India, like the Maurya (324-187 B.C.E.) and Gupta (c. 320-c.550 C.E.) domains, and were in touch with them through tact and exchange.

The Sri Lankan Buddhist realms prospered by building and controlling water system networks on the fields in the northern piece of the island. One old capital, Anuradhapura, was home to probably the biggest and most amazing Buddhist sanctuaries of southern Asia. The leader of another Sri Lankan state, Lord Kasyapa (r. 473-491) made his capital at Sigiriya, a characteristic stone post rising a sheer 500 feet over the encompassing plain, on top of which the lord constructed a rich city of castles and gardens.

Lord Kysapa and other Sri Lankan rulers needed to manage periodic attacks from Tamil Nadu, in southern India, which expanded in recurrence and seriousness after around 600 C.E. Sri Lanka battled, not in every case effectively, to stay free of the incomparable Chola Domain that ruled southern India from around 850 to 1279 C.E. A Tamil realm was laid out on the Jaffa Landmass, in the northern piece of Sri Lanka, by the mid 13 th century. In the mean time the focal point of Sinhalese regal power floated consistently toward the southern and western pieces of the island, and the different Sinhalese realm of Kandy rose to control in the focal slopes. The division of Sri Lanka into a Tamil north and east, and a Sinhalese south, focus and west, is subsequently not another peculiarity of the twentieth hundred years, but rather a circumstance that has existed for many years.

Trade and the Provincial Period

Significant distance sea exchange the Indian Sea district has existed since old times. The Roman Domain imported extravagance products from Sri Lanka, including gemstones and cinnamon. Sri Lankan ships cruised as far west as Arabia, and as far east as China. Middle Easterner and Persian traders knew Sri Lanka as the island of Serendib (a word that gives us “luck,” signifying “something which comes as a wonderful shock”). “Treasure ships” sent by the ruler of Ming Line China visited Sri Lanka during the fifteenth hundred years.

Sri Lanka started to feel the effect of Europe not long after Portuguese boats tracked down their direction to the Indian Sea toward the finish of the fifteenth hundred years. Since Sri Lanka was wealthy in merchandise that Europeans needed, and furthermore in light of the fact that it is a helpful put to prevent on the way from Europe to Indonesia and China, Europeans contended to control the island and its exchange. The Portuguese vanquished Sri Lanka’s beach front urban areas in the 16 th century however confronted wild rivalry from the Dutch for control of the island. By 1707 the Dutch had caught the remainder of the Portuguese fortifications along the coast and turned into the vitally European power in Sri Lanka, yet they thusly missed out to the English in 1795-96. By 1818 the English had likewise crushed the autonomous inland Realm of Kandy, and the entire island of Sri Lanka turned out to be important for the English Domain.

Under English pilgrim rule, the economy of Sri Lanka was changed to turn into a maker of farming items for unfamiliar exchange. Before long the economy was overwhelmed by estate harvests like espresso, tea, elastic, and coconuts. The English specialists additionally energized the movement of Tamil workers from southern India to Sri Lanka to chip away at the ranches. Provincial rule made new tip top gatherings, including ranch chiefs, intelligent people who made the most of the valuable chance to acquire a western-style instruction, and civil servants who worked for the frontier government. However, ethnic issues kept on entangling Sri Lankan public life.


All over South Asia (counting the present nations of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), resistence to English rule developed quickly after the finish of The Second Great War in 1919. In Sri Lanka, which was similarly little, stable, and all around represented under English rule, the country’s most memorable popularity based political race was held in 1931. A development toward financial self-assurance prompting full freedom was initiated by Sri Lanka’s most prominent current pioneer, Wear Stephen Senanayake (1884-1952). At the point when Sri Lanka became autonomous on February 4, 1948, Senanayake turned into the nation’s most memorable state leader. He committed his administration to the standards of a free, vote based, and multi-ethnic Sri Lanka. In any case, well established issues between the Sinhalese and Tamil people group made it hard to make a genuinely multi-ethnic culture. Numerous Sinhalese hated the Tamils as “newbies” who removed positions and political power from them (albeit the predecessors of certain Tamils had lived in Sri Lanka for a really long time). Numerous Tamils expected that their privileges would be disregarded by the Sinhalese greater part.

Present day Sri Lanka: Issues and Commitment

Sri Lanka’s way as a cutting edge, free country has been defaced by practically persistent political savagery. States have confronted well known tension from the Sinhalese greater part not to make concessions to the Tamil minority; Tamils have disturbed for more independence. An understanding in 1957 perceiving Tamil as a public language and requiring the production of a semi-independent Tamil state in the upper east was rarely completely executed. Starting around 1972 the equipped uprising of the Freedom Tigers of Tamil Eelam (“Tamil Tigers”) has been met with government military power, prompting through and through nationwide conflict. Many political pioneers, including State leader W. R. D. Bandaranaike in 1959 and President Ranasinghe Pemadasa in 1993, have been killed by fanatics from the two networks. Notwithstanding truces, talks, and harmony putting forth attempts by India, Norway, and Thailand, by the mid 21 st century the nationwide conflict had been answerable for somewhere around 60,000 passings. Unfamiliar interest in assembling and the travel industry has deteriorated to some extent in light of fears of brutality, with adverse consequences on public monetary development.

Reestablished harmony talks in 2002-04 have prompted a decrease in the degree of viciousness, and new expectations for a drawn out settlement. Sri Lanka has an enormous, knowledgeable populace, incredible monetary potential, and a long practice of a vote based system. It is ready for an extraordinary future in the event that it can tackle its vital issue of Sinhalese-Tamil clash. Numerous spectators trust that a public exertion towards recuperation from the wave of 2004 will be a positive development.

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